Laser Surgery | Glaucoma Research Foundation
The eye is a fluid-filled globe about an inch in diameter. To focus light, the eye needs to maintain a smooth round shape. To keep the eye round, the eye is filled with a fluid called the aqueous, much like the tires on your car are filled with air to

The eye is a fluid-filled globe about an inch in diameter. To focus light, the eye needs to maintain a smooth round shape. To keep the eye round, the eye is filled with a fluid called the aqueous, much like the tires on your car are filled with air to keep them round. There is a certain pressure in this aqueous fluid just like your car tire has pressure in the air. Under normal circumstances, the pressure in the eye is between 10 and 20. The fluid is created by a special tissue called the ciliary body. It then circulates through the eye and eventually drains out of the eye at the drainage tissue called the trabecular meshwork.

A visual image is formed when light enters the eye and is focused onto the retina by the clear lens. The retina then changes the image into electrical signals that are sent along one million tiny nerve fibers in the optic nerve. These electrical signals arrive in a special area of the brain where the electrical signals are interpreted.

So how do fluid flow and electrical signals relate to glaucoma? Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve and the tiny nerve fibers within it degenerate. A damaged nerve leads to decreased vision and even blindness in advanced cases. The most common cause of the nerve damage (glaucoma damage) is an increased eye pressure. The eye pressure increases when the drain inside the eye (trabecular meshwork) gets clogged and the fluid doesn’t flow through it easily. When the pressure increases, this pushes against the nerve and over many months and years causes the nerve to degenerate.

The eye is a fluid-filled globe about an inch in diameter. To focus light, the eye needs to maintain a smooth round shape. To keep the eye round, the eye is filled with a fluid called the aqueous, much like the tires on your car are filled with air to keep them round. There is a certain pressure in this aqueous fluid just like your car tire has pressure in the air. Under normal circumstances, the pressure in the eye is between 10 and 20. The fluid is created by a special tissue called the ciliary body. It then circulates through the eye and eventually drains out of the eye at the drainage tissue called the trabecular meshwork.

A visual image is formed when light enters the eye and is focused onto the retina by the clear lens. The retina then changes the image into electrical signals that are sent along one million tiny nerve fibers in the optic nerve. These electrical signals arrive in a special area of the brain where the electrical signals are interpreted.

So how do fluid flow and electrical signals relate to glaucoma? Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve and the tiny nerve fibers within it degenerate. A damaged nerve leads to decreased vision and even blindness in advanced cases. The most common cause of the nerve damage (glaucoma damage) is an increased eye pressure. The eye pressure increases when the drain inside the eye (trabecular meshwork) gets clogged and the fluid doesn’t flow through it easily. When the pressure increases, this pushes against the nerve and over many months and years causes the nerve to degenerate.

Glaucoma affects around 3 million people in the United States, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Nicknamed "the silent thief," it affects vision gradually. Often people notice no symptoms until the disease is quite advanced, and unfortunately its effects are irreversible.

What is glaucoma?
The human eye is filled with a clear watery fluid called aqueous humor. Normally this fluid flows through the eye and then drains out. It is believed that in a person with glaucoma, this fluid does not drain properly, so it builds up within the eye, increasing the pressure inside. This increased intraocular pressure (IOP) can damage the optic nerve, causing a permanent decrease in vision and eventually blindness.

The disease is still not fully understood. It was once believed that IOP was the primary cause of the nerve damage, but research has indicated that other factors are likely involved. There is no specific threshold for IOP causing nerve damage. Some people can live for years with "high" IOP and show no signs of glaucoma, while someone else with "normal" IOP experiences vision loss from the disease. However, high IOP is definitely a risk factor, and should be treated accordingly.

People at high risk for glaucoma due to high intraocular pressures, family history, age or optic nerve appearance may need more frequent visits. Glaucoma exams and glaucoma treatment are available in San Francisco, San Jose, Walnut Creek, and Santa Rosa.

An acute glaucoma attack produces sudden symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, halos around lights, dilated pupils, vision loss, red eyes, nausea and vomiting. These signs may last for a few hours, then return again for another round. Each attack takes part of your field of vision. Other signs include headaches, blurred vision, difficulty adapting to darkness, or haloes around lights.

Treating glaucoma is preserving eyesight by slowing the damage to the nerve in the back of the eye (optic nerve). Most treatment aims to prevent further damage to the optic nerve by lowering the pressure in the eyes. Though glaucoma can usually be treated with medications, such as eye drops, laser treatment or surgery is often required. Surgery for glaucoma helps to maintain the health of the optic nerve and reduces the pressure in the eyes.

Glaucoma is the term used to describe a number of related conditions that cause damage to the optic nerve, which transmits information from the eye to the brain. It usually (but not always) is associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Left untreated, glaucoma can cause blindness.

Ocular hypertension is another term for high eye pressure. In ocular hypertension, IOP is higher than normal but does not cause optic nerve damage and vision loss. Ocular hypertension is a risk factor for glaucoma and should be monitored closely.

The two most common types of "glaucoma tests" performed during a routine eye exam are non-contact tonometry and applanation tonometry.

Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP). There are many glaucoma surgeries, and variations or combinations of those surgeries, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous.

An iridotomy involves making puncture-like openings through the iris without the removal of iris tissue. Performed either with standard surgical instruments or a laser, it is typically used to decrease intraocular pressure in patients with angle-closure glaucoma. A laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is the application of a laser beam to selectively burn a hole through the iris near its base. LPI may be performed with either an argon laser or Nd:YAG laser. [6] [7]

An iridectomy , also known as a corectomy or surgical iridectomy , involves the removal of a portion of iris tissue. [8] [9] A basal iridectomy is the removal of iris tissue from the far periphery, near the iris root; a peripheral iridectomy is the removal of iris tissue at the periphery; and a sector iridectomy is the removal of a wedge-shaped section of iris that extends from the pupil margin to the iris root, leaving a keyhole-shaped pupil.

The eye is a fluid-filled globe about an inch in diameter. To focus light, the eye needs to maintain a smooth round shape. To keep the eye round, the eye is filled with a fluid called the aqueous, much like the tires on your car are filled with air to keep them round. There is a certain pressure in this aqueous fluid just like your car tire has pressure in the air. Under normal circumstances, the pressure in the eye is between 10 and 20. The fluid is created by a special tissue called the ciliary body. It then circulates through the eye and eventually drains out of the eye at the drainage tissue called the trabecular meshwork.

A visual image is formed when light enters the eye and is focused onto the retina by the clear lens. The retina then changes the image into electrical signals that are sent along one million tiny nerve fibers in the optic nerve. These electrical signals arrive in a special area of the brain where the electrical signals are interpreted.

So how do fluid flow and electrical signals relate to glaucoma? Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve and the tiny nerve fibers within it degenerate. A damaged nerve leads to decreased vision and even blindness in advanced cases. The most common cause of the nerve damage (glaucoma damage) is an increased eye pressure. The eye pressure increases when the drain inside the eye (trabecular meshwork) gets clogged and the fluid doesn’t flow through it easily. When the pressure increases, this pushes against the nerve and over many months and years causes the nerve to degenerate.

Glaucoma affects around 3 million people in the United States, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Nicknamed "the silent thief," it affects vision gradually. Often people notice no symptoms until the disease is quite advanced, and unfortunately its effects are irreversible.

What is glaucoma?
The human eye is filled with a clear watery fluid called aqueous humor. Normally this fluid flows through the eye and then drains out. It is believed that in a person with glaucoma, this fluid does not drain properly, so it builds up within the eye, increasing the pressure inside. This increased intraocular pressure (IOP) can damage the optic nerve, causing a permanent decrease in vision and eventually blindness.

The disease is still not fully understood. It was once believed that IOP was the primary cause of the nerve damage, but research has indicated that other factors are likely involved. There is no specific threshold for IOP causing nerve damage. Some people can live for years with "high" IOP and show no signs of glaucoma, while someone else with "normal" IOP experiences vision loss from the disease. However, high IOP is definitely a risk factor, and should be treated accordingly.

People at high risk for glaucoma due to high intraocular pressures, family history, age or optic nerve appearance may need more frequent visits. Glaucoma exams and glaucoma treatment are available in San Francisco, San Jose, Walnut Creek, and Santa Rosa.

An acute glaucoma attack produces sudden symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, halos around lights, dilated pupils, vision loss, red eyes, nausea and vomiting. These signs may last for a few hours, then return again for another round. Each attack takes part of your field of vision. Other signs include headaches, blurred vision, difficulty adapting to darkness, or haloes around lights.

Treating glaucoma is preserving eyesight by slowing the damage to the nerve in the back of the eye (optic nerve). Most treatment aims to prevent further damage to the optic nerve by lowering the pressure in the eyes. Though glaucoma can usually be treated with medications, such as eye drops, laser treatment or surgery is often required. Surgery for glaucoma helps to maintain the health of the optic nerve and reduces the pressure in the eyes.

The eye is a fluid-filled globe about an inch in diameter. To focus light, the eye needs to maintain a smooth round shape. To keep the eye round, the eye is filled with a fluid called the aqueous, much like the tires on your car are filled with air to keep them round. There is a certain pressure in this aqueous fluid just like your car tire has pressure in the air. Under normal circumstances, the pressure in the eye is between 10 and 20. The fluid is created by a special tissue called the ciliary body. It then circulates through the eye and eventually drains out of the eye at the drainage tissue called the trabecular meshwork.

A visual image is formed when light enters the eye and is focused onto the retina by the clear lens. The retina then changes the image into electrical signals that are sent along one million tiny nerve fibers in the optic nerve. These electrical signals arrive in a special area of the brain where the electrical signals are interpreted.

So how do fluid flow and electrical signals relate to glaucoma? Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve and the tiny nerve fibers within it degenerate. A damaged nerve leads to decreased vision and even blindness in advanced cases. The most common cause of the nerve damage (glaucoma damage) is an increased eye pressure. The eye pressure increases when the drain inside the eye (trabecular meshwork) gets clogged and the fluid doesn’t flow through it easily. When the pressure increases, this pushes against the nerve and over many months and years causes the nerve to degenerate.

Glaucoma affects around 3 million people in the United States, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Nicknamed "the silent thief," it affects vision gradually. Often people notice no symptoms until the disease is quite advanced, and unfortunately its effects are irreversible.

What is glaucoma?
The human eye is filled with a clear watery fluid called aqueous humor. Normally this fluid flows through the eye and then drains out. It is believed that in a person with glaucoma, this fluid does not drain properly, so it builds up within the eye, increasing the pressure inside. This increased intraocular pressure (IOP) can damage the optic nerve, causing a permanent decrease in vision and eventually blindness.

The disease is still not fully understood. It was once believed that IOP was the primary cause of the nerve damage, but research has indicated that other factors are likely involved. There is no specific threshold for IOP causing nerve damage. Some people can live for years with "high" IOP and show no signs of glaucoma, while someone else with "normal" IOP experiences vision loss from the disease. However, high IOP is definitely a risk factor, and should be treated accordingly.

People at high risk for glaucoma due to high intraocular pressures, family history, age or optic nerve appearance may need more frequent visits. Glaucoma exams and glaucoma treatment are available in San Francisco, San Jose, Walnut Creek, and Santa Rosa.

An acute glaucoma attack produces sudden symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, halos around lights, dilated pupils, vision loss, red eyes, nausea and vomiting. These signs may last for a few hours, then return again for another round. Each attack takes part of your field of vision. Other signs include headaches, blurred vision, difficulty adapting to darkness, or haloes around lights.

Treating glaucoma is preserving eyesight by slowing the damage to the nerve in the back of the eye (optic nerve). Most treatment aims to prevent further damage to the optic nerve by lowering the pressure in the eyes. Though glaucoma can usually be treated with medications, such as eye drops, laser treatment or surgery is often required. Surgery for glaucoma helps to maintain the health of the optic nerve and reduces the pressure in the eyes.

Glaucoma is the term used to describe a number of related conditions that cause damage to the optic nerve, which transmits information from the eye to the brain. It usually (but not always) is associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Left untreated, glaucoma can cause blindness.

Ocular hypertension is another term for high eye pressure. In ocular hypertension, IOP is higher than normal but does not cause optic nerve damage and vision loss. Ocular hypertension is a risk factor for glaucoma and should be monitored closely.

The two most common types of "glaucoma tests" performed during a routine eye exam are non-contact tonometry and applanation tonometry.

The eye is a fluid-filled globe about an inch in diameter. To focus light, the eye needs to maintain a smooth round shape. To keep the eye round, the eye is filled with a fluid called the aqueous, much like the tires on your car are filled with air to keep them round. There is a certain pressure in this aqueous fluid just like your car tire has pressure in the air. Under normal circumstances, the pressure in the eye is between 10 and 20. The fluid is created by a special tissue called the ciliary body. It then circulates through the eye and eventually drains out of the eye at the drainage tissue called the trabecular meshwork.

A visual image is formed when light enters the eye and is focused onto the retina by the clear lens. The retina then changes the image into electrical signals that are sent along one million tiny nerve fibers in the optic nerve. These electrical signals arrive in a special area of the brain where the electrical signals are interpreted.

So how do fluid flow and electrical signals relate to glaucoma? Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve and the tiny nerve fibers within it degenerate. A damaged nerve leads to decreased vision and even blindness in advanced cases. The most common cause of the nerve damage (glaucoma damage) is an increased eye pressure. The eye pressure increases when the drain inside the eye (trabecular meshwork) gets clogged and the fluid doesn’t flow through it easily. When the pressure increases, this pushes against the nerve and over many months and years causes the nerve to degenerate.

Glaucoma affects around 3 million people in the United States, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Nicknamed "the silent thief," it affects vision gradually. Often people notice no symptoms until the disease is quite advanced, and unfortunately its effects are irreversible.

What is glaucoma?
The human eye is filled with a clear watery fluid called aqueous humor. Normally this fluid flows through the eye and then drains out. It is believed that in a person with glaucoma, this fluid does not drain properly, so it builds up within the eye, increasing the pressure inside. This increased intraocular pressure (IOP) can damage the optic nerve, causing a permanent decrease in vision and eventually blindness.

The disease is still not fully understood. It was once believed that IOP was the primary cause of the nerve damage, but research has indicated that other factors are likely involved. There is no specific threshold for IOP causing nerve damage. Some people can live for years with "high" IOP and show no signs of glaucoma, while someone else with "normal" IOP experiences vision loss from the disease. However, high IOP is definitely a risk factor, and should be treated accordingly.

People at high risk for glaucoma due to high intraocular pressures, family history, age or optic nerve appearance may need more frequent visits. Glaucoma exams and glaucoma treatment are available in San Francisco, San Jose, Walnut Creek, and Santa Rosa.

An acute glaucoma attack produces sudden symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, halos around lights, dilated pupils, vision loss, red eyes, nausea and vomiting. These signs may last for a few hours, then return again for another round. Each attack takes part of your field of vision. Other signs include headaches, blurred vision, difficulty adapting to darkness, or haloes around lights.

Treating glaucoma is preserving eyesight by slowing the damage to the nerve in the back of the eye (optic nerve). Most treatment aims to prevent further damage to the optic nerve by lowering the pressure in the eyes. Though glaucoma can usually be treated with medications, such as eye drops, laser treatment or surgery is often required. Surgery for glaucoma helps to maintain the health of the optic nerve and reduces the pressure in the eyes.

Glaucoma is the term used to describe a number of related conditions that cause damage to the optic nerve, which transmits information from the eye to the brain. It usually (but not always) is associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Left untreated, glaucoma can cause blindness.

Ocular hypertension is another term for high eye pressure. In ocular hypertension, IOP is higher than normal but does not cause optic nerve damage and vision loss. Ocular hypertension is a risk factor for glaucoma and should be monitored closely.

The two most common types of "glaucoma tests" performed during a routine eye exam are non-contact tonometry and applanation tonometry.

Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP). There are many glaucoma surgeries, and variations or combinations of those surgeries, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous.

An iridotomy involves making puncture-like openings through the iris without the removal of iris tissue. Performed either with standard surgical instruments or a laser, it is typically used to decrease intraocular pressure in patients with angle-closure glaucoma. A laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is the application of a laser beam to selectively burn a hole through the iris near its base. LPI may be performed with either an argon laser or Nd:YAG laser. [6] [7]

An iridectomy , also known as a corectomy or surgical iridectomy , involves the removal of a portion of iris tissue. [8] [9] A basal iridectomy is the removal of iris tissue from the far periphery, near the iris root; a peripheral iridectomy is the removal of iris tissue at the periphery; and a sector iridectomy is the removal of a wedge-shaped section of iris that extends from the pupil margin to the iris root, leaving a keyhole-shaped pupil.

Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve . It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve.


Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness for people over 60 years old. But blindness from glaucoma can often be prevented with early treatment.

This is the most common type of glaucoma. It happens gradually, where the eye does not drain fluid as well as it should (like a clogged drain). As a result, eye pressure builds and starts to damage the optic nerve. This type of glaucoma is painless and causes no vision changes at first.

The eye is a fluid-filled globe about an inch in diameter. To focus light, the eye needs to maintain a smooth round shape. To keep the eye round, the eye is filled with a fluid called the aqueous, much like the tires on your car are filled with air to keep them round. There is a certain pressure in this aqueous fluid just like your car tire has pressure in the air. Under normal circumstances, the pressure in the eye is between 10 and 20. The fluid is created by a special tissue called the ciliary body. It then circulates through the eye and eventually drains out of the eye at the drainage tissue called the trabecular meshwork.

A visual image is formed when light enters the eye and is focused onto the retina by the clear lens. The retina then changes the image into electrical signals that are sent along one million tiny nerve fibers in the optic nerve. These electrical signals arrive in a special area of the brain where the electrical signals are interpreted.

So how do fluid flow and electrical signals relate to glaucoma? Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve and the tiny nerve fibers within it degenerate. A damaged nerve leads to decreased vision and even blindness in advanced cases. The most common cause of the nerve damage (glaucoma damage) is an increased eye pressure. The eye pressure increases when the drain inside the eye (trabecular meshwork) gets clogged and the fluid doesn’t flow through it easily. When the pressure increases, this pushes against the nerve and over many months and years causes the nerve to degenerate.

Glaucoma affects around 3 million people in the United States, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Nicknamed "the silent thief," it affects vision gradually. Often people notice no symptoms until the disease is quite advanced, and unfortunately its effects are irreversible.

What is glaucoma?
The human eye is filled with a clear watery fluid called aqueous humor. Normally this fluid flows through the eye and then drains out. It is believed that in a person with glaucoma, this fluid does not drain properly, so it builds up within the eye, increasing the pressure inside. This increased intraocular pressure (IOP) can damage the optic nerve, causing a permanent decrease in vision and eventually blindness.

The disease is still not fully understood. It was once believed that IOP was the primary cause of the nerve damage, but research has indicated that other factors are likely involved. There is no specific threshold for IOP causing nerve damage. Some people can live for years with "high" IOP and show no signs of glaucoma, while someone else with "normal" IOP experiences vision loss from the disease. However, high IOP is definitely a risk factor, and should be treated accordingly.

glaucoma eye surgery types


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